High Renaissance Masters - The Story of Raphael

Raphael - The Height of The High Renaissance?

Raphael Sanzio da Urbino (1483-1520) was an Italian painter, born in Urbino, during the High Renaissance period.

Raphael was Renowned for his clarity, grace and refinement. He was able to convey beauty and perfection to such an exceptional standard by mastering the techniques used in High Renaissance such as sfumato, human figures, expression and emotion.

Born to a court painter, Raphael was taught the arts and also social skills which proved to be crucial. His ability to navigate the higher courts enabled him to secure work and also strike a friendship with Pope Julius II.

It was Raphael's relationship with Pope Julius II that had a lasting impact because he was tasked with decorating the famous Stanza Della Segnatura, in the Vatican Palace.

A Brief History of Raphael

The untimely death of his Mother and Father compelled an 11-year old Raphael to manage his father's workshop and refine his craft.

Surpassing his father and becoming one of the best painters in his town, Raphael attracted the attention of Perugino who took Raphael under his stewardship. 

After becoming an independent master, around 1501, Raphael's career soon took him to Florence and finally Rome, the burgeoning centres of the High Renaissance.

Florence 

Around 1504, Raphael lived in Florence - home to other master artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.

Raphael was heavily inspired by the people in his life. His works contain elements of his former teacher, Perugino and icons such as Massacio, Da Vinci, Bartolommeo, Michaelangelo and Bramante.

He had an uncanny ability to learn from other artists and use this knowledge to form his own style. It compelled Michaelangelo to call Raphael a plagiarist! As you'd expect, those two often had their run-ins!

Rome

In 1508, the court of Pope Julius II asked Raphael to redecorate various parts of the Vatican Palace. This occurred at the same time Michaelangelo was completing The Sistine Chapel.

To learn about this fascinating period, check out our article: Art History - The High Renaissance.

Although The Sistine Chapel overshadowed a lot of the art in the Palace, Raphael still completed notable paintings which are lauded as some of the finest of European Art. For example, The School of Athens and various Madonnas.

Now that you know about Raphael, here are some of his most famous works.

Famous Paintings by Raphael

Along with paintings, he also designed tapestries and was an architect too! Here's a look at some of the paintings which made Raphael a master artist of the High Renaissance.

School of Athens (1509-1511) 

School of Athens (1509-1511) Image Via - Wikimedia Commons

This painting can be considered Raphael's finest Fresco painting.

The School of Athens portrays major figures from wisdom, knowledge, philosophy and science. They are all sharing (but probably arguing) their ideas and learning from each other.

Pythagoras, Ptolemy, Zoroaster, Socrates and Euclid are included but Plato and Aristotle are the central figures. It's the latter whose philosophies influenced Christianity. 

Sistine Madonna (1513-1514)

Sistine Madonna (1513-1514) - Raphael

Image Via - ThoughtCo

There are two things you need to know before we delve into this painting:

  • A Madonna, in Christian Art, depicts Virgin Mary. 
  • The Sistine Madonna takes its name from San Sisto in Piacenza.

So, the Madonna is holding baby Jesus as she floats on clouds. She is joined by St Sixtux, St Barbara and two Angel cherubs who are gazing in contemplation. 

The expression by the Madonna and Baby Jesus is of fear. Why? St Sixtus is pointing out to something.

When you consider the intended location of the painting (behind a choir screen which isn't there), it would have pointed to a crucifix - so Jesus and the Madonna would have seen his death and his mother would have seen how he would be treated. 

Trivia - King Augustus III of Saxony purchased it in 1754 for his collection in Dresden, Germany.

Mond Crucifixion (1502-1503)     

Mond Crucifixion (1502-1503)  - RaphaelImage Via - Wikipedia

An early work by Raphael with elements of Perugino. Originally an altarpiece in the church of San Domenico, The painting depicts Jesus, on the cross, looking on whilst dying.

If you look closely, there are two angels who are catching his blood with chalices.

Beneath Jesus are: Mary Magdalene,  St. Jerome, John the Evangelista and Mary the Virgin.

Trivia - Ludwig Mond gave the painting to the National Gallery.

Disputation of the Holy Sacrament (1508-1511)

Disputation of the Holy Sacrament (1508-1511) - RaphaelImage Via - Wikimedia Commons

Raphael has depicted heaven and earth in this painting with numerous figures:

  • In the centre, you can see that Christ is with the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist.
  • Located near Jesus are Adam, Moses, and other figures.
  • God is at the top and reigns over heaven's golden light. 
  • Below Christ's feet is the Holy Spirit.

Raphael achieved a sublime clarity and simplicity which we still awe at to this day. 

The Parnassus (1510-1511)

The Parnassus (1510-1511) - RaphaelImage Via - Arthive

One of four frescos by Raphael, it resides on one of the interior walls of the Stanza Della Segnatura in the Vatican Palace and was commissioned by Pope Julius II.

Parnassus is actually a mountain and, according to ancient Greek myth, was the mountain where the muses and poets met and Apollo had his seat.

Apollo was associated with music, truth, poetry and fine art and sat on the slopes of the mountain playing a lira da braccio, a renaissance instrument.

Trivia - Historians have only identified 12/18 poets.

Final Words

Despite living for only 37 years, Raphael has been one of the major talking points of High Renaissance art.

His funeral was attended by thousands and he was buried in the Rome's Pantheon next to Maria Bibbiena. His tomb had a thought-provoking inscription:

"Here lies that famous Raphael by whom Nature feared to be conquered while he lived, and when he was dying, feared herself to die." - Pietro Bembo

Even though he is ranked among Da Vinci and Michaelangelo, there is something each of them have which sets them apart and makes us appreciate them even more. 

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